The Lost Civilisation


The Stonehenge Enigma

Stonehenge lighting strike

Robert John Langdon's trilogy  'Prehistoric Britain'  tells the true story of Britain and the Megalithic People who built the stone monuments  of Stonehenge, Avebury , Woodhenge (Durrington Walls).


So who built Stonehenge?


By Robert John Langdon


We have become littered with TV programmes and media releases telling us about what Stonehenge was in the past as if the mystery has finally become solved - but that's far from the truth! 

.

Since the 1950's when new scientific techniques were deployed in the search of the lost secrets of Stonehenge, archaeologists have found that for every mystery solved another two or three more important questions have been conceived. Of the three basic questions about Stonehenge - Who, What and Why - none of these questions have ever been answered 'scientifically' and a series of myths have replaced scientific investigation and fact. 

.

This should not be a surprsies to any historian as it was once common practice to 'fill in the gaps of knowledge' with nonsense rather than the truth - 'I don't really know?' This lack of knowledge has launched an avalanche of 'experts' walking around Stonehenge talking about 'cerimonial walkways', 'religious beliefs' and non-existent 'astronomical alignments' - which is all very entertaining but bad science! 

.

As Carl Sagan once said "Science is a way of thinking, much more than a body of knowledge"

.

Here is an extract from my book 'The Stonehenge Enigma' which looks at one of those unanswered questions that archaeologists refuse to answer:

.

.

Section Four: An Ancient Civilisation


In this section we will try to illustrate what kind of culture could organise and build such
enormous monuments that lasted ten thousand years. We have shown that these monuments were not
constructed ‘overnight’ by hundreds of workers slaving without rest to reach their endeavours, but
by a more controlled, gradual construction process over many hundreds or even thousands of years as
their culture and society grew.

The way to measure the greatness of our prehistoric ancestors is through the longevity of
their civilisation, for time shows that they had a stable and structured society that kept faith with
the same ancient traditions as their forefathers for many thousands of years, like the Native North
Americans Indians before our technological civilisation invaded their land. Consequently, this may be
our second measure to the differences in our cultures, for today we seek to advance through technology,
as we believe the better the technology, the better and greater the civilisation.

But is that really true?

Archaeologists date history by technological phases and not by cultural values; Stone Age,
Bronze Age and Iron Age are the main prehistoric evolutionary time periods. This type of technology-
-focused dating implies that Stone people were more primitive than the Iron Age people because they
had LESS lethal metal weapons. This is deeply misleading. Today, our governments can destroy whole
continents just by pressing a switch to launch rockets that can kill millions of innocent faceless people.

Is this really progress and a sign of a great civilisation?

Isn’t there more honour and a greater ‘morality’, as a human being, when looking into your enemies’
eyes and, in that brief moment, judging whether they are guilty of a crime you deem so serious as
to justify taking their life? So, when we evaluate historic civilisations, we must also evaluate our own
values and judgements. For if we do not we may fail to understand the true nature of these cultures of
the past.

The Megalithic Builders

Open any book about prehistory that has been published in the last 100 years, and you will
get a ‘stereotypical view’ of fur-clad cavemen who lived before and after the last ice age 12,000 years
ago, chipping away with flint stone tools, eating raw meat and each other. This primitive basic lifestyle
supposedly lasted until the Bronze Age in about 2500 BCE, when they cut down all the trees and built
strange monuments to appease and worship the gods. The British tribes were then gradually civilised
and re-educated by the influences of trade, and later by more advanced invading civilisations that had
developed in mainland Europe from the influences from the Middle East. This (in a nut shell) is the current
‘Out of Africa Theory’, which eventually arrives in Britain and a civilisation in the form of farming
and living in mud huts with their pigs and goats.

And is complete nonsense!

This ‘dribble’ has been regurgitated so many times in the past that we have almost taken it as
truth. Consequently, when an archaeologist finds something that doesn’t fit this ‘norm’, it is rejected
totally out of hand. In previous sections, we have seen the way good scientific evidence is dismissed
when it doesn’t fit the old accepted theories of British history. The same disregard is given to our
ancestral culture. Academics paint them as unsophisticated fur-clad nomads who hunted wild animals
while their women gathered berries; hence the term ‘hunter-gatherer’. But then, suddenly, out of the
blue, this strange group of farmers, who were incapable of building a decent wooden cabin, got together
to build a stone monument, using woodworking techniques, that would last 10,000 years.

We should not take lightly their ability to build something of such magnitude as Stonehenge,
as the degree of organisation required to produce these constructions is very rarely seen in our history.
There is a tendency for archaeologists to look at certain modern cultures and compare these people
with our ancestors. The classic example is the hunter-gatherer tribes of Africa, America or Asia. This
analogy is fundamentally flawed, as these tribes do not possess the organisation or the engineering
ability to build monuments as large, or as long-lasting, as we see in Northern Europe.

So, how do we establish a framework for us to understand this unknown civilisation?

The answer is to look even more closely with an unprejudiced mind at their technology, science
and mathematics and, through this window in our imagination, we will try to find some answers to
our questions. We have already established that this civilisation existed for thousands of years (much
longer than our very own civilisation that dates back to the farming revolution just five thousand years
ago), continually working on their monuments to adapt them to the falling groundwater of the Neolithic
Period which ended their aquatic way of life.

We understand from the man hours they put into building their monuments that they had
to be highly organised, as they only had small numbers of people to work at raising stones and digging
moats.

So, did they all live in caves as portrayed?

Well, if they did, there must have been a lot more caves back then than now, or they would
have been rather crowded! Clearly, this is not the answer. Our hypothesis explains that after the
last ice age, the land was flooded with groundwater from the melting ice caps. Britain then became a
nation of islands with a mild climate, much warmer than today - the kind of subtropical environment
now seen in some regions of the South America. After the last ice age, as the tundra that restricted
growth receded, trees grew in abundance and the dry land became covered with woods and thick
forests. If we are going to investigate the lifestyles of Mesolithic and Neolithic man, we must look to
the boat people of the Amazon and Far East for examples of their ways.

Archaeologists have reconstructed roundhouses made from mud and straw, which they
suggest is the logical construction type based on the discovery of post holes at some Bronze and Iron
Age sites. The problem is that this type of house seems to have come into being in the Bronze Age,
with no evidence of earlier man-made housing in the Mesolithic and Neolithic; hence the association
of cave dwellings with this period, which spans about 7,000 years (5 times longer than the 1,500
years of the mud hut phase). This lack of accommodation is even more bewildering when compared to
the elaborate housing found in the forsaken wasteland of the Orkneys. The round stone structures
found there, which had built-in furniture and walls 2 metres high to keep the elements out, are of a
greater sophistication than any Bronze and Iron Age mud huts in the South, but yet these houses are
older.

So, if we had houses in the past, why did we go back to mud huts?

We have seen in more recent history how our ancestors did ‘go backwards’ in the Dark Ages.
When the Roman Empire withdrew from Britain, their elaborate brick-built, centrally heated houses
were abandoned for the simple mud and stick houses of Medieval Britain and the warm air central
heating facility was lost for nearly two thousand years.

Are we seeing the same thing in the Orkneys?

The only evidence archaeologists have of habitation is post holes in the ground. Most post
holes would make fine square buildings, but this has always been dismissed since roundhouses were
first defined some 60 years ago. The problem for archaeology is that once a discovery is defined in
detail (usually via a paper or book on the subject, interpreting finds at a particular site) archaeologists
apply it to all such features in their future fieldwork.

Therefore, after Gerhard Bersu identified a roundhouse at Little Woodbury in the 1930s,
this type of construction was expected to be the standard in all prehistoric sites throughout Britain.

But there is a problem with this assumption. The houses at Little Woodbury were probably built in about
600 BCE. We know from the writings of the Romans that when they invaded a hundred years later, the
society they conquered was hierarchical. That means that there were kings and servants, who one would
imagine lived in different types of houses.

Now I understand that it is hard to believe that archaeologists are this ‘prescriptive’ in their
attitude. But this is a real example of the problems that, if not challenged end up as perceived archaeological
truth.

The Neolithic settlement at Brzesc Kujawski was discovered in 1933 by farmers digging gravel
from deposits beneath their fields on a low ridge of land bordering Lake Smetowo. While digging, they
found artifacts and skeletons. Luckily, an archaeologist named Konrad Jazdzewski (1908-1985) was working
nearby, and when he learned of these discoveries he came to investigate. He immediately recognized
that this was potentially an important find and began excavations. Over the next six years, he cleared
the topsoil from more than 10,000 square meters, exposing one of the largest Neolithic settlements
discovered before World War II.

Jazdzewski noticed that one of the most apparent Lengyel features at Brzesc Kujawski was
the long narrow trenches dug into the clay and gravel subsoil, sometimes reaching a meter or more below
the surface. These trenches formed trapezoidal outlines 20 to 30 meters long, 5 to 6 meters wide at
one end and 2 to 3 meters at the other. Clearly, these were structures of some sort because there were
indications that the trenches had held upright posts. Among these trapezoidal enclosures were large pits
with very irregular bottoms dug into the clay subsoil”.

So far so good then - now read the next extract - you couldn’t make this up if you wanted too!!

Brzesc Kujawski
The Brzesc Kujawski Site

“At the time, the prevailing belief was that Neolithic people lived in the pits, which were
thought to have been roofed over with flimsy shelters. But what were the trapezoidal post structures?
Archaeologists who had recently excavated Linear Pottery post structures at Koln-Lindenthal in Germany
had proposed that they might have been barns or granaries. They could not imagine people living in
them.”

Archaeologists (because of their inadequate and closed minded training, could not believe that
these primitive hunter-gathers could build a house, so they told everyone that they lived in the ditch
with an animal skin as a roof (no doubt attached to the perfectly secure wooden post).

It beggars belief, but it’s absolutely true!

Even today they are suggestion that they are barns or granaries and people could not live in
them - Is this because archaeologists have portrayed these people as 'fur covered primitives’ that could
only live in round mud huts, like our African ancestors - but it is a step up from living in a watery pit I
guess!

"But one of Jazdzewski’s workers remarked that if he had to live in one of the muddy clay pits,
he would break his legs slipping around in it. Jazdzewski concluded that the Lengyel timber structures at
Brzesc Kujawski really were Neolithic houses and that the pits served some other purpose.”

IT’S CALLED A MOAT YOU IDIOT!!

A ‘worker’, some manual labourer had to break the news to Jazdzewski (Konrad Jażdżewski
(1908–1985) a Polish professor of archaeology at the University of Łódź. that his ideas were plain
‘NUTS’ and the result of closed minded stereotypical twaddle. Its amazing to me, that 70 years later
nothing has changed in the archaeology field and to prove it look at the new modern interpretation of
the site.

“Eventually this view prevailed, and archaeologists now know that the big pits in fact were the
places where clay was dug for plastering the walls of houses built with timber posts set into foundation
trenches. At Brzesc Kujawski, more than fifty such houses have been found, both during Jazdzewski’s
excavations in the 1930s and during further excavations by Ryszard Grygiel and Peter in the 1970s and
1980s. They are oriented along an axis running northwest-southeast, with the wide end toward the southeast.

The reason for this orientation of the houses or for their trapezoidal shape is not clear. Many
of their outlines overlap, indicating that they were built and rebuilt at different times. Burned clay
plaster in the filling of the foundation trenches indicates that a number of the houses were destroyed
by fire. The nearby clay pits were filled up with debris, animal bones, charred seeds, and artefacts like
broken pieces of pottery. Other pits were used for storage or as the locations of workshops”

Post / stake holes

Clay pits for god sake!! Let’s see clay foundations and rain, what do you get??..... it’s the
blind leading the blind!!

So Gerhard is probably right – the mud hut roundhouses so favoured by reconstruction archaeologists
are typical dwellings – for some in that society, but not all; particularly not for tribal chiefs,
princes and holy men and only from the Bronze age onwards 2500BCE - 64AD, which still leaves many
possible buildings missing.

Post Holes
When you look at any prehistoric site, you find post holes; not just some, but sometimes hundreds.
Archaeologists try to ‘join the dots’ and outline something familiar, but the chances of getting it
right from just an outline of dots are realistically zero. Fortunately, later prehistoric roundhouses are
much more identifiable, but the constructions of the Neolithic and Mesolithic are almost impossible to
identify using today’s techniques (or lack of them!).

The reason for the confusion is that most archaeologists seem not to understand why you
dig a post hole! Structural archaeologist Geoff Carter has spent many a long year trying to educate
archaeologists on the merits of post holes and why they are dug. On his web site, he concludes that
‘thousands of disregarded postholes’ are ‘tucked away in reports as unphased.’ He continues, ‘it is little
wonder archaeology made up a simpler story [of mud roundhouses] that was easier to understand’.

Quite simply, if you just want a stable post which does not wobble when pushed by wind or people,
you use a stake, usually with a large spike on the end to cut through the soil – as you would do when
erecting or mending a fence. The stake is simply driven into the ground, making a hole that narrows to
a point. But you would only dig a hole and create a stable base, if you were going to place a lot of ‘weight’
directly on top of the structure.

Stonehenge mortice and tenon joints

A posthole is a hole dug to accommodate a timber post, which would typically be used to support a
load acting vertically upon it, usually as part of a larger structure with multiple post foundations. For this
reason, the top of the post would be narrowed to form a ‘tenon’ so it can be jointed into a corresponding
hole, or mortise, in a horizontal timber. The horizontal timber will link it to other posts, and the weight of
the structure will be spread evenly between several posts. Posts are least suited to loads being applied
from the side, so in this situation, driven stakes, which fit tightly into the ground, would be used. This produces a feature archaeologists refer to as a ‘stake hole’, the ancient equivalent of a hole left by a modern
sharpened fence post driven into the ground. Fences are not very heavy, but they do get pushed sideways
by animals and even by the wind, making stakes more appropriate in these circumstances.


Woodhenge Post holes


Stakes are designed to sink into the ground under pressure, whereas posts are not so designed;
the terms, and the usage, are not interchangeable. Usually, the builder does not want a post to sink, since
it is supporting the structure. However, pointed timbers driven a very long way into soft ground like marshes
or lake bottoms can be used as foundations; in this context they are known as piles.’ We have already
seen mortise and tenon joints in the Archaeology section of this book, as Stonehenge’s Sarsen stones
were dressed with mortises and tenons before they were erected. This evidence proves that, prior to
the building of Stonehenge, the mortise and tenon joint was very familiar to prehistoric man, and he must
have used it in his domestic wooden structures.

If you have the ability to use this type of joint, and you understand the mathematics of weight
distribution (hence the use of posts rather than stakes), then you can do two things. You can place very
large roofs on your buildings; we can calculate the size of the roof space against the number of timbers
required to support it. You can also build structures with multiple ‘floors’. Man has always been fascinated
by height, either climbing it or building it; our other ancient monuments had great foundations, not for a
single storey enclosure, but to build to the sky.

Is it beyond imagination that at a time when our ancestors were building the largest man-made
construction in Europe (Silbury Hill), they might also have built multi- storey monuments into the sky? In
fact, I’ve built one myself in my garden for my children; it’s called a tree house, didn’t take long and it’s
over 10 feet high and I built it without any assistance. But don’t ask me to build Stonehenge, for I wouldn’t
know where to start. So, if can build a construction above the ground on my own, why have archaeologists
never considered that they were capable of multi-story buildings, even when they know from the
joints used at Stonehenge they had the knowledge and technology?

These post holes can be reinterpreted to produce long houses as seen in the medieval period,
which used the same woodworking techniques. Such floors could even be part of the roundhouse structures we have already found, that are currently identified as ‘mud huts’. This, clearly, is an advanced
civilisation that could build not only monuments of stone but also multi- floored houses or towers, such as
Woodhenge.

Durrington Posthloles

Boat Houses and Crannogs
Remember, this was a nautical civilisation that travelled every day by boat, due to the thick
forest and dangerous animals, and had marked trading routes (following long barrows).
That being the case, why would they wish to live on the land?

There are still indications of this aquatic dwelling style in Britain; they are called crannogs.
These are houses that are built on the groundwater, connected to the land (if necessary) by bridges.
The most important aspect of these houses is their accessibility to the boats the families would use.
These type of homes existed up to the 17th century in Scotland, and if you look at Durrington Walls you
can see that not only was it a natural bay for houseboats, but there are also outlines of five crannogs on
the shoreline.

Recently, in Star Carr, archaeologists have claimed to have found the oldest house in Britain
– its date, amazingly enough, is 8500 BCE. This is the same date we have suggested for the first
phase of Stonehenge, including the three mooring posts in what is now the car park, but was then the
shoreline of the Stonehenge peninsula. What the archaeologists found at Star Carr was a crannog, but
more important was the discovery of the ‘planking’ that formed the walkway to the roundhouse, for they
discovered the earliest known evidence of plank splitting. This is a process in which logs are split with
wedges along the grain, to obtain flat thin wooden planks like those we use in construction today.

This find is significant, as it begs the question: why bother?

If you are making a walkway, it can be just as effective to use whole logs rather than split
wood. The plank-splitting process would take more time and greater expertise to produce the desired
effect. Well, logs are solid, and are hardier than split wood because they are thicker, so they would
last longer. However, wooden slats are flatter and easier to walk on. If you’re carrying goods and cargo,
it’s practical to use planks for a walkway over groundwater – they might save you from falling in!

Crannogs

What we see here is a high degree of expertise and technology that was thought to be more
Iron Age than Mesolithic (a difference of about 7,000 years, incredibly enough), but the greater
revelation is that planks could have been used for other purposes. If we are looking at a nautical
civilisation that possessed not only wood-splitting skills, but also mortise and tenon joints as seen at
Stonehenge, then it’s not a quantum leap to suggest that they joined planks together to make large
boats, rather than the dugout or leather canoes archaeologists had previously believed to be the limit
of Mesolithic ability.

If you were a master craftsman and you had ample free wood to use, where would you want
to live: on land in a mud hut with the animals, or on the water on a boat of your own - away from dangerous predators?

History in other regions of the world have shown that mankind does not automatically jump
from nothing to wooden boats, they use other materials, such as water reeds, which grow in abundance
anywhere were shallow water lays, to form by just gathering and tying small single man boats.
These reed boats obviously do not survive the passage of time, but yet we have found boats of reeds
dating back to 5000 BCE in Kuwait and from inscriptions on temple walls we know they were common
in ancient Egypt. Strangely, archaeologists are aware that our ancestors had access to reeds, but only
used them for the roofs of the ‘mud huts’ they occupied.

If you can gather reeds to waterproof the roof of your round house - you can also make
a boat!

The discovery of this water-based lifestyle changes our perception of prehistoric man, from
a dirty hunter-gatherer dressed in fur to a boat-dweller living in a stable, idealist society with ample
food and water. We should never forget the everyday essentials of life - not just food and water,
but sanitary requirements too. Water is not only a great way of washing your clothes, but also of
removing waste products and rubbish. Why dig a hole and bury waste in a pit for the insects or wild
animals, when you can just dump it overboard?

Star Carr mortice and tenon joint
Star Carr - Planking 8500BCE

One of the greatest archaeological mysteries has always been the lack of evidence for Mesolithic
civilisation. We have always wondered why there is so little evidence of human habitation before the Iron
Age, and clearly now we see houses and occupation aside from the occasional cave such as Cheddar Gorge.
In some locations, flakes from stone knapping have been found, and it was imagined that these sites were
ritual feasting locations for the nomadic Mesolithic tribes. Undamaged tools and trinkets discovered at the
end of walkways were interpreted as sacred offerings to the water gods.

This is, of course, complete bunkum!

These items simply fell off the boats that were the Mesolithic people’s homes, and could not be
retrieved. By the same logic, you don’t really pay homage to the great god of the sofa by offering him your
small change! If you spend a lot of time on a boat, you get used to looking for a harbour when night begins
to fall. The simple reason is that you need to meet some basic requirements in life. Firstly, you need to
stock up with provisions. You may be sailing on the water, but you need to stop and obtain fresh water for
drinking and cooking. You may also need some other foods as you will sometimes require or desire more than
fish for your diet.

The second requirement is shelter. Boats don’t do well in storms, and a harbour is the safest way
of riding out any bad weather. The third requirement is company. Again, this is a basic human habit, and
people who sail boats (particularly around the Mediterranean) always end up in a harbour at night with other
people, as we are a species of social animal that loves to communicate and trade.

Harbours
We have found 3 harbours in this region (as seen in our earlier case studies). The one with the
clearest evidence is Durrington Walls; as we have seen in our case study, it does not have a flat ground level.
The semi-circle has a distinct ‘V’ shape, making it impractical to build houses there – but it is a perfect
harbour. The banks were built up around it to protect the boats from the wind and rain, then crannog-like
structures were built at the groundwater’s edge to moor the boats and provide accommodation.

Next to the mooring site at Durrington Walls is the famous Woodhenge. Wooden henges were
quite common in prehistoric times, and their purpose has always been marked down as religious or ceremonial – ‘don’t know’, in layman’s terms! Lots of pits with animal bones have been found here, and burnt hearths without any associated houses – so, to archaeologists, they are ceremonial feasting stations! I suspect that these were just markets or trading stations where people congregated at night to eat, drink, talk and trade. Woodhenge is thought to have been roofed; what I believe is that it was more likely a tower with a roof, as it was next to a harbour and we know from ancient written books that this was common place.

Maybe Woodhenge even had a tower with a fire at the top, to signify that the site was open for
business, which would have shone like a beacon at night to attract all those who needed food and shelter.
Today we think of lighthouses as serving to warn boats of possible dangers, but they could have originated
in the Mesolithic to attract boats to harbours. The earliest recorded lighthouse was built in about 300
BCE, on the island of Pharos at Alexandria in Egypt. I see no reason why such a monument couldn’t have
existed before that time. It is a fact that most lighthouses are situated on islands or at the end of
peninsulas.

Alexandria Lighthouse
Alexandria Lighthouse - The first one?

To prevent the wooden tower burning down, all you would need is a flat roof with a stone-lined
fire pit under the hearth. The oldest surviving lighthouse in Britain is a Roman ruin at Dover. In antiquity,
a lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal, unlike lighthouses
today. In our case study of Silbury Hill, I deliberately did not mention our interpretation of the
true purpose of this largest man-made object in Europe. I thought I’d save that fact to discuss here,
because we believe that the hill was one the world’s first ever lighthouses (Woodhenge was the other).

The height, size and shape of the hill allows the occupants to place a massive beacon of fire

on its flat top, which would have been seen for hundreds of miles across Mesolithic Britain. Avebury, as
we have seen in the case study, was another massive inland port with islands and a gigantic stone circle
where people met and traded; it is, again, a natural harbour, as it’s at the end of a waterway. When you consider the lack of archaeological evidence under the mound, and the groundwater that surrounded
this eccentric flat-topped construction like an island, it’s no wonder that the purpose of Silbury Hill has
baffled archaeologists. There were no dead bodies, no gold, no treasure of a great king – it’s much more
valuable than that, for it was a beacon that shone to gather together a great civilisation in what became
the dawn of mankind.

Silbury Hill Lighthouse/beacon
Silbury Hill - Lighthouse/beacon

Wood
Before we move on to discuss trade, we need to look at the ease of use and access to wood.
Archaeology has given us strange ideas about the past and the people who lived in prehistoric times. We
have disproved the idea of hundreds of men pulling large stones over a grassy Salisbury Plain, and replaced
it with a vision of a nautical society floating stones down rivers by attaching them to large wooden rafts.
Wood would be plentiful; it really does grow on trees! But again, we are left with the strange idea that
prehistoric man spent hours, days and weeks cutting down these trees, which is not the case.

If you want to fell a number of trees in a short period, you don’t chop them down one by one, because
it takes too long and is too exhausting. The easiest way of felling a tree is to burn its base with fire.
Even the mightiest tree, such as the metre-wide trees found at the Stonehenge mooring, could be burnt
down over 36 hours of intensive burning. This process allows you to fell several trees at the same time; all
you need to do is maintain the fire, and make sure you aren’t under the trees when they become weakened and begin to fall! The downside to this method is that occasionally, in the dry season, the fire may spread out of control and burn through massive swathes of forest. This may give us a further clue as to why such vast areas of forest were cleared in the Mesolithic and Neolithic periods; perhaps they were burned not for farming as was first believed, but rather in the earliest industrial environmental accidents.

We know that this burning process took place, as charcoal has been found at the bases of some
postholes where the builder failed to cut off all the burnt material before erecting the posts. Fortunately,
because charcoal does not rot, we can still carbon date the postholes (as at the Stonehenge car park).

Trade
Man has traded almost since the dawn of his creation. The first evidence of trading has been
dated to 150,000 BCE – long before the Mesolithic Period, so we can be quite assured that our ancient
civilisation traded. When prehistoric man moored his boat in that safe haven, guided by the lighthouse to
show it was open, the chances are that others would be doing the same. If he had a surplus of fish, tools
or trinkets he would probably end up trading.

There is no indication that money existed in those times, so we can assume that the barter system
was used to trade goods – “I’ll swap you 10 fishes for that watery stuff with an added kick”, or “I’ll
build you a boat in exchange for that wonderfully polished flint tool”. Bartering is a unique system that is
alien to us as we live in a monetary system; history tells us that societies that used bartering systems had
markets, and rules governing trade. This indicates a civilisation of great sophistication for, as we have now
proved, the prehistoric Britons had what is known as an organised marketplace.

Ancient Trade Boats
Ancient Trade Boats

Non-monetary societies operated largely along the principles of gift economics. When barter did
in fact occur, it was usually between either complete strangers or would-be enemies. While one-to-one
bartering is practised between individuals and businesses on an informal basis, organized barter exchanges
have developed to conduct third party bartering. The barter exchange operates as a broker and bank and
each participating member has an account which is debited when purchases are made, and credited when
sales are made. With the removal of one-to-one bartering, concerns over unequal exchanges are reduced.

Are we seeing, in these harbours and lighthouses, a civilization with such a sophisticated bartering
system that they had created the world’s first trade. A trade or barter exchange is a commercial organization
that provides a trading platform and bookkeeping system for its members or clients. The member
companies buy and sell products and services to each other using an internal currency known as barter or
trade dollars. Modern barter and trade has evolved considerably to become an effective method of increasing
sales, conserving cash, moving inventory, and making use of excess production capacity for businesses
around the world. Businesses in barter earn trade credits deposited into their account instead of cash.

They then have the ability to purchase goods and services from other members, using their trade credits;
they are not obligated to purchase from the person they sold to, and vice versa. The exchange plays an important role because it provides the record-keeping, brokering expertise and monthly statements to each
member. Commercial exchanges make money by charging a commission on each transaction, either all on the
buyer’s side, all on the seller’s side, or a combination of both. Transaction fees typically range between 8%
and 15%.

The ‘middle man’ of the exchange received a percentage of the value of any goods traded. This
would have allowed him to barter for materials and a workforce to build the harbour and lighthouse. Or did
his society understand that such a facility was necessary, and volunteer to build and use it together for
the common good (making them prehistoric socialists!)? Either way, we have in one short chapter taken
the archaeologists’ half-naked hairy Mesolithic man living in a cave (remember, mud huts came some 5,000
years later) and shown that in fact he was a boat-sailing entrepreneur with a marketplace to sell his goods
and services.

Someone is sadly deluded!

Ancient floating market
Ancient Floating Market - still found in Asia

If we are right about this lost advanced civilisation, surely there must be other evidence of
trade somewhere?

Tools
It’s almost impossible to date a flint tool, unless it’s found ‘in situ’ and we can date the layers above
and below. It seems reasonable to assume that the most primitive tools are older than the most sophisticated,but it doesn’t appear to work out that way when you look at what evidence has been discovered. The first thing you will notice about Mesolithic tools is that they are sharper than the later Bronze Age tools! The counter to that is that they are more brittle.

Were these tools made for the mass market?

Are they the first disposable tools in history?

Why would you make such a tool?

Mesolithic Microlith tools
Mesolithic microlith tools

Because, as any entrepreneur will tell you, that’s how you stay in business – by keeping people
coming back for more. So, Mesolithic tools were more efficient, but Neolithic tools started to feature
polished blades; these not only looked good, but could be re-polished and sharpened. The next strange
item in the prehistoric tool kit is the stone axe – this was an essential item for survival in prehistory.
There are three types of axe which have been dated to this period. First came the rough and ready axe
with flint flakes bound to a wooden handle, very sharp, very practical.

Then came an axe which was highly polished and attached to the same type of handle; it is
less sharp, but more robust, and looks fantastic. These axes show the hours of work needed to make
them smooth. Archaeologists call these ceremonial axes as they show little signs of wear; alternatively,
it’s possible that the axes were simply very well cared for and had all the dents removed on a regular
basis – a little bit like washing and polishing your car, it’s not a ceremonial thing but a matter of pride.
The third axe type is a complete mystery, and gives us an indication of the sophistication of the period.
These axes were not only highly polished, but had a ‘mace’ handle cut into the stone. This may not seem
such an incredible achievement at first sight, but if you’ve ever tried to drill a hole in a piece of granite,
you will know just how hard it is. A civilisation that could achieve this using only basic hand tools deserves
our respect.

I tried to use an electric high-speed hammer drill with a diamond head to cut a hole just 10mm
into such a piece of granite. After applying the full force of my 14 stone body in the attempt, which resulted
in frustration and only a tiny dent in the surface after several minutes, I gave up and called in an
expert with an even more powerful machine. The truth is, no one knows, and archaeologists don’t want
to ask too many inconvenient questions as according to them these primitives spent all day hunting food
and living in mud huts – get the picture?

Stone holesAncient Bow Drill
Bow Drill make perfect holes in Stone

To drill these types of holes, you must have either metal or a tool called a ‘bow drill’ (or, for
the larger holes in granite, a ‘pump drill’). The problem with these instruments is that according to
current theories they were not used until 3000 BCE, in Egypt. So, either way, this prehistoric British
civilisation had the skills and technology with which we credit the ancient Greeks and Egyptians some
5,000 years later. Is it possible that our ancestors used a simpler method?

What we must keep in mind is that equipment such as drills would allow the level of sophistication
in other areas, such as furniture, to evolve above all expectation. The standard of living would
progress from mud huts to chairs and tables, and the evolution does not stop at housing; drills can also
be used for other purposes, such as medicine.

Medicine
Dentistry has been found in a dozen or so human teeth dated to the Neolithic Period. It
appears a bow drill was used to cut out decay and relieve pain as the drilling is extremely accurate.
Moreover, this is an unbelievably sophisticated method; a tooth extraction is much simpler, does not
require an expert, and is just as effective. That drilling was carried out instead of extraction indicates
the strength of medical care in prehistoric society. Further medical evidence can be seen in one of the
great untold mysteries of prehistory. Highly developed surgery methods of the Neolithic Period have
been discovered over recent years.

Scientists excavating a Neolithic tomb at Buthiers-Boulancourt, near Paris, found that its
occupant had undergone a surgical amputation. The elderly man buried in the tomb had his left forearm
carefully removed about 6,900 years ago, demonstrating that our ancestors had quite a remarkable
degree of medical knowledge. The French National Institute for Preventive Archaeological Research
reports that the patient is believed to have been anaesthetised with pain-relieving plants; the conditions
were aseptic enough to avoid infection; the cut was clean, and the wound was treated with herbal
medicine (it’s amazing what you find when you fund archaeology correctly!).

Prehsitoric Arm Amputation

Intriguingly, the cut was made just above the ‘trochlea indent’ at the end of the bone, indicating
that the surgery was carried out by someone with a high degree of medical expertise. This was just one
example; two other Neolithic amputations have been discovered in Germany and the Czech Republic. So, is it
possible that this man travelled to Stonehenge for his treatment, or had advanced medical knowledge spread from Britain to Europe by 5000 BCE, some 3,000 years after Phase I of Stonehenge’s construction?

We
know that the man was well travelled, as one of his stone tools came from the stone range of the Ardennes in Belgium (at that time, Belgium would still have been connected to ‘Doggerland’, as the English Channel had not yet fully formed).

Neolithic Amputation of the arm - undertaken with ‘expert’ skill But it doesn’t end there; here is
more evidence of a society that was ‘before its time’ according our present view of history. Trepanation is a
surgical operation that involves the removal of a rectangle or disk of bone from the skull. The section of bone may be extracted with flint or metal blades by drilling a series of small holes, making intersection incisions, or scraping through the bone.

The Buthiers-Boulancourt burial contained the well-preserved skeleton of a man who died at roughly
50 years of age. The radiocarbon date for his bones was 5100-4900 BCE, about 2,000 years before current
theories say that Stonehenge (the centre of the most technologically advanced society in European prehistory) is supposed to have been built. Two trepanations had been carried out on this man: one to the front, measuring 2.5 inches by 2.6 inches, and one to the top, measuring 3.7 inches by 3.6 inches. The frontal operation scar was completely healed, and the larger surgery wound on the top of the skull had partially healed, indicating that he survived both operations successfully.

Prehistoric Trepanation

Another interesting aspect of this story that was missed by most commentators was the age of
the man found. He was 50! According to experts, the life expectancy of a Neolithic man was 20-25. The
Romans were not expected to live more than 30 years. In fact, a life expectancy of 50 was not reached
until the 20th century, so what kind of society could have such long life expectations? And this is not an
exception; judging from the bones found in Britain so far, the average age of a Mesolithic man at death
was 35. Is it possible that a civilisation had developed that was so sophisticated that they built massive
stone monuments, and were able to cure the sick with health spas and surgery? If so, did our French
man travel to Stonehenge for his operation? If he did, is there any evidence that other people travelled
these vast distances to be cured of their ills?

The Amesbury Archer is one of the most famous stories about Stonehenge that has come out
in recent years. This man, who was suffering from a bone infection, travelled from the Italian Alps to
Stonehenge, but died and was buried with a selection of grave goods that amazed archaeologists, as they
gave an insight into the life of a man who lived some 4,500 years ago.

So the Archaeologists said he must have walked. Unfortunately, he was missing his left knee
cap, so he must have hopped more than 800 miles to get here!

The Amesbury Archer must have travelled by boat to Stonehenge. This means that this trading
route had already been well established, as most people would have to take time to consider and prepare
for such a journey. The grave goods found on the Archer show that he was a craftsman, so he would have
traded his craft in exchange for food, water and accommodation during his trip to Britain. He must have
also taken his family, as he was buried with all his worldly goods, which would have been very unlikely if a
stranger buried him.

Moreover, the Amesbury Archer was about 35 to 45 years old, 10 years older than the life
expectancy of an Iron Age man, clearly showing that the treatment found at Stonehenge was successful
even for his crippling illness.

Farming
Traditionally, the Neolithic Period is famous for the birth of civilisation and farming. We need
to spend a couple of moments considering this aspect of life. The classic classroom bunkum would normally
go like this:

The change from a hunter-gatherer to a farming way of life is what defines the start of the
Neolithic or New Stone Age. In Britain the preceding period of the last, post-glacial hunter-gatherer
societies is known as the Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age. It used to be believed that the introduction
of farming into Britain was the result of a huge migration or folk-movement from across the Channel.
Today, studies of DNA suggest that the influx of new people was probably quite small - somewhere around
20% of the total population were newcomers.

Prehistoric farmers

So the majority of early farmers were probably Mesolithic people who adopted the new way of life and took it with them to other parts of Britain. This was not a rapid change - farming took about 2,000
years to spread across all parts of the British Isles. Traditionally the arrival of farming is seen as a major
and rapid change sometimes called the ‘Neolithic revolution’. Today, largely thanks to radiocarbon dates,
we can appreciate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farmer was relatively gradual. We know,
for example, that hunters in the Mesolithic ‘managed’ or tended their quarry. They would make clearings in
woodland around sources of drinking water, and probably made efforts to see that the herds of deer and
other animals they hunted were not over-exploited.

The switch from managed hunting to pastoral farming was not a big change. The first farmers
brought the ancestors of cattle, sheep and goats with them from the continent. Domestic pigs were bred
from wild boar, which lived in the woods of Britain. Neolithic farmers also kept domesticated dogs, which
were bred from wolves. It is probable that the earliest domesticated livestock were allowed to wander,
maybe tended by a few herders. Sheep, goats and cattle are fond of leaves and bark, and pigs snuffle around roots. These domestic animals may have played a major role in clearing away the huge areas of dense
forest that covered most of lowland Britain.

This is quite a modern interpretation, taken from the BBC history web site. Radiocarbon dating is
now leading to an adjustment of the date archaeologists had established for the earliest signs of ‘civilisation’
or farming, which was about the same time as Stonehenge in about 3000 BCE. This has now been slowly
extended, as more evidence is gathered, to the late Mesolithic in 5000 BCE. Yet even with overwhelming
evidence to the contrary, archaeologists drag their heels at the suggestion that the old dating system is
simply wrong! In the quoted website article, the evolution of the domestic dog is placed with farming (as
they believed it was associated with sheep farming) in the Neolithic. However, the earliest known domestic
dog bones were found at another famous Mesolithic camp, Star Carr, dated to 7500 BCE.

This either means that sheep farming started 2,500 years earlier than archaeologists are telling
us, or (as we believe) that dogs were domesticated long before farming arrived – which opposes the traditional view. At the end of the Ice Age, our ancestors walked the tundra tracking for food just like the
Eskimo do today; they would likewise have used dogs to pull their sledges. These dogs were bred from wild
wolves, which would have become domesticated in the course of time. This means that the dogs would have been passengers on the boats of the civilisation that built Stonehenge, as sheep had yet to be introduced.

Farming was probably taken up in the Mesolithic Period, in about 5000 BCE. Initially, this would have started from ideas brought to Britain by traders from other, older civilisations within Europe.

Farming was not necessary in Britain, as our boat-dwelling ancestors had a plentiful supply of
fresh fish and other seafood, but in a trading nation, supplies of exotic foods would have carried greater
value than the abundant staple supplies relied on in the past. So tools could be purchased with some food
supplies in this open marketplace. Later in the Neolithic Period, farming became a growing necessity as the
groundwater tables throughout the country fell and life as a boat family became increasingly difficult. At
this point, our ancient civilisation had a decision to make that would change the course of British history.

Our ancestors decided to leave and move South, taking their technology, culture and philosophy
with them. Regarding this journey, I will go into further detail in a future book.

Prehsitoric Boat at Stonehenge

Conclusion
This is not the only time in our history that an established civilisation has come to the fore and
then subsequently disappeared, to be replaced with a lesser form of society. The ancient Romans brought
new technology to rural Britain in 45 AD with brick houses, central heating, glass windows, roads, wine,
sanitation, art and literature (we’ll forgive them for slavery for the time being!), Only to be replaced in less
than 200 years with wood and mud huts, disease from poor sanitation, hunger from poor cultivation, and
lots of beer drinking by horned warriors. We now refer to this as the Dark Ages within the Mediaeval Period
that lasted about 1,000 years. As we are aware of such reversions in history, archaeologists should be
more careful in their assumptions about how our world has developed. This book has revealed a new world
of groundwater in the Mesolithic Period; it has also discovered that a civilisation of huge potential did in
fact exist 5,000 years before conventional archaeology and history recognises their existence.

This knowledge fundamentally changes the history of Britain, and subsequently the world, because
unless our prehistoric ancestors’ technological and mathematical skills were completely lost, they must
have passed down their skills to other generations and cultures. When we look at the history of the world,
particularly if we seek to find out where the ancient Greeks and Egyptians first obtained their engineering
and mathematical knowledge, we find that we have been left with an incomplete history of their origins. In
some instances, this practical knowledge seemed to ‘appear’ suddenly, without any evidence of prototypes
or of failures in the course of its development.

But there are accounts of a great civilisation that may have influenced ancient Greece. For example,
great writers such as Plato referred to such a nation with advanced technology and knowledge, which
influenced their society through trade. Within this book, we have proved that a great nautical civilisation
did exist that was capable of building monuments of such magnitude that they still lie on Britain’s hillsides
some 10,000 years later. This civilisation traded throughout Europe, and had knowledge of medical procedures and techniques not seen again for another 7,000 years in Britain. The reputation of their medical
treatments enticed the sick and disabled to travel across the known world to bathe in the pure waters of a
Mesolithic hospital.

Plato's atlantis

In Plato’s account, this great civilisation was a ‘naval power’ lying in front of the ‘Pillars of Hercules’
(the opening to the Atlantic Ocean from the Mediterranean). It conquered many parts of Western
Europe and Africa, 9,000 years before the time of Solon (i.e. in 9500 BCE). Amazingly, this is approximately
the same date as one of the four gigantic metre-wide mooring posts was being placed on the shoreline
of a peninsula on what is now known as Salisbury Plain. This mooring post, which has been carbon dated to
8500 BCE ±500, was the beginning of a construction that was to become the greatest and oldest surviving
monument of the prehistoric world: Stonehenge.

In our next book ‘Dawn of the Lost Civilisation’ we will trace the movements of this great society
that started its journey in the Caspian Sea and finally travel to all four corners of the world, where there
DNA lays testament to being the forefathers of our civilisation, for Plato was referring to the great ‘lost civilisation' known to the ancient Greeks as - ATLANTIS.



Are you a historic 'Mushroom'?

The word ‘Mushroom’ is rarely used in historical connections. However, most of our history books are full of errors and incorrect assumptions. If you have never heard of this term before it is (in the kindest terms) used to describe a person or persons keep in the dark and feed with …………….. manure!


So is our history a ‘cock-up’ or is it a ‘conspiracy’?


 “He who controls the present, controls the past. He who controls the past, controls the future.”  1984

George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-Four is a fictional account of the manipulation of the historical record for nationalist aims and manipulation of power. In the book, the creation of a "national story” by way of management of the historical record is at the heart of the debate about history as propaganda. To some degree, all nations are active in the promotion of such "state stories,” with ethnicity, nationalism, gender, power, heroic figures, class considerations and important national events and trends all clashing and competing within the narrative.

Such clever manipulation is almost impossible to identify if you have been indoctrinated into these ‘lies’, as you have no benchmark to judge them against. However, within those manipulations there will be facts that just ‘don’t make sense’! I have highlighted some of these facts in this book to illustrate that some of our history is quite simply nonsense - which could be due to ‘sleight of hand’ or what academia refers to as ‘peer review’, which is supposed to be a ‘firewall’ that keeps the nonsense out. However, in reality, all it has done over the years is kept the perpetuated nonsense in, giving it greater credibility than it deserves.

The classic example is the case of Galileo Galilei; (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642), who was an Italian physicist, mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism (sun centered solar system) Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy”, the "father of modern physics”, the "father of science”, and "the Father of Modern Science”.

Three hundred and fifty years ago he was not father to anything; he was a 'heretic’ as he believed that the earth went around the sun, contrary to the bible. Galileo did not have the internet to promote his hypothesis and the church had ‘peer reviewed’ his ideas and found them false and contradictory the then academic belief (as they had total control over the education system) which centered the earth in this religious universe. Moreover, even after verification of his evidence and acceptance of his theories, it still took another fifty years for the ‚Inquisition’s ban’ on reprinting Galileo’s works to be lifted in 1718, when permission was granted to publish an edition of his works (excluding of course the condemned Dialogue’s) - the church finally lifted the partial ban in 1835, just 178 years ago and 193 years after his premature death. The credibility of ‘Peer Review’ was perfectly summed up by Richard Horton, editor of the British medical journal The Lancet, who said that:

"The mistake, of course, is to have thought that peer review was any more than a crude means of discovering the acceptability—not the validity—of a new finding. Editors and scientists alike insist on the pivotal importance of peer review. We portray peer review to the public as a quasi-sacred process that helps to make science our most objective truth teller. But we know that the system of peer review is biased, unjust, unaccountable, incomplete, easily fixed, often insulting, usually ignorant, occasionally foolish, and frequently wrong" - So much for peer review!

 But why are there so many mistakes in our history?


Homo sapiens are the only creatures capable of abstract thought and a ‘perception’ of time, creating a manipulation of thought concerning the past, the future and the present. An inquiry into the nature of history is based (in part) on a working understanding of time as a human experience. Therefore, history (as understood by Western thought) tends to follow an assumption of this linear progression: "this happened, and consequently, that happened; and so that happened because this happened first.” This is also known as the ‘cause and effect’ philosophy. Yet most ancient cultures held a mythical conception of history and time that was NOT linear. They believed that history was cyclical with alternating Dark and Golden Ages.

In Hesiod’s ‘The Works and Days’ he described the five ages of Man: the Gold Age, the Silver Age, the Bronze Age, the Heroic Age, and the Iron Age, each with their ebbs and flows of progression.  Other scholars suggest there were just four ages, corresponding to the four metals, and the Heroic age was a description of the Bronze Age. The clearest illustration of this ‘ebb and flow’ of historical invention can be seen with the Roman Villa. The use of a ‘hypocaust system’’ created a house that had ‘under floor’ heating, which is much more efficient than fires or radiators - yet if this house was found without reference archaeologists using ‘linear’ logic would conclude that it must have been built in the 21st century as all previous houses lacked the superior design.

So if our linear history is fundamentally flawed, where are these problems and are there a more rational explanation for them?



The Robert John Langdon Trilogy - Prehistoric Britain

12,000 years ago the last Ice Age finally melted, revealing the Britain we know today... 

OR DID IT?

Britain had been underneath two miles of ice and the surrounding seas had frozen solid. What was left was a huge icy mass of enormous weight, pushing down on this tiny island. This mass had compressed the earth so much that the land surface lay at least a half a mile below the sea bed as we know it today.
So what exactly happened after the great ice age melt?

This huge mass of watery ice that covered Britain raised the groundwater tables and left the land totally saturated. In fact, the volume of water was so great that it eventually created the English Channel and the North & Irish Seas. Very slowly, the land then started to rebound, so slowly in fact that even now, parts of Britain are still rising about one cm per year. This melting ice combined with the lowering of the land levels created not the single island called Britain we know today, but a series of smaller islands and waterways - totally unrecognisable to the landscape that is so familiar to us now. 

Moreover, the land became a sub-tropical forest as the warmer climate that first melted the polar ice caps encouraged the growth of abundant foliage. This would very probably have caused the islands to experience what we would consider today to be monsoon seasons. Which in turn then kept groundwater tables abnormally high for another 4,000 years? The foliage, groundwater and warm climate would have left the islands resembling more like the Amazonian rain forest, rather than the grassy hills of Britain we see today.

The only way our Mesolithic ancestors of Britain could have had to adjust to this new environment would have been to develop and use their boat and seamanship skills. Consequently, adapting to living and trade by these shorelines travelling via the vast waterways and lakes rather than through the forests, which would have been riddled with dangers such as brown bears, packs of wolfs and wild boar all roaming freely. Therefore, the shorelines became critical – our Mesolithic ancestors would have lived, worked and gathered by these ‘super-waterways’ and would have created social monuments and beacons on there beaches and peninsulas.

My hypothesis proposes that our greatest prehistoric monuments, such as Stonehenge, were built on these watery peninsulas. I also propose that the ditches surrounding henges were NOT dry ditches, as archaeologists currently believe, but were, in fact, constructed to be watery moats and canals, which turned these sites into very special islands. The most astonishing aspect of this hypothesis is that even today, thousands of years after the groundwater have subsided, we can re-visit these sites and identify the ports and channels of this bygone age and by using the landscape, we can date, more accurately than ever before, when the sites were initially constructed.

Another key component of my hypothesis is the discovery of navigational signposts (Long Barrows), built within the landscape, on the banks of these waterways. Traditionally, archaeologists have believed that these had religious or ceremonial use, whereas my evidence shows that they had a more functional engineering purpose, helping our ancestors to navigate around these islands. 

In fact, the book will show for the first time, that these signposts guided our ancestors when they transported enormous stones from the Preseli Mountains in Wales to the site at Stonehenge – by boat. These very stones were used to build the first phase this magnificent monument. Even more importantly, I can show the exact location of where these vast stones were unloaded from the boats and how this precious cargo and the mechanism used to lifted onto shore. 

This discovery of this landing site has led us to accurately date for the first time the original construction date of Stonehenge - 7500BC to 8000BC. This is 5,000 years earlier than current archaeological estimations, making Stonehenge probably the oldest Stone Monument in the world.

Prehistoric Britain consists of three books :

The Stonehenge Enigma

Prehistoric Britain

My Online Book and Map Store

Hardback Edition - Amazon Books

Softback Colour Edition - Amazon Books

Kindle Edition - Amazon Books

Contents

Preface to SECOND EDITION                                

Prologue                                             

Introduction                                            

THE HYPOTHESIS                                    

Section One: THE GEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Chapter 1 -    A Land called DOGGER      (Doggerland)                      

Chapter 2 -    The BIG squeeze             (Isostatic Transformations)                   

Chapter 3 -    WATER, water everywhere...   (Post Glacial Flooding)                     

Chapter 4 -    Geological Maps                       (Prehistoric flood maps)         


Section Two: THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

Chapter 5 -    Dykes and other Earthworks                        

Chapter 6 -    Ditches best known as Moats                        

Chapter 7 -    The Prehistoric Health Spa                        

Chapter 8 -    Bluestones from far away                         

Chapter 9 -    The Lost North West Entrance                        

Chapter 10 -  The Avenue to a new Neolithic mooring place                

Chapter 11 -   Snails can tell us an old story                        

Chapter 12 -   Barrows – Long and Round                            


Section Three: THE LANDSCAPE EVIDENCE

Chapter 13 -    The Stonehenge Landscape                        

Chapter 14 -    Old Sarum - the missing link                        

Chapter 15 -    Avebury - the oldest of them all                    

Chapter 16 -    Woodhenge & Durrington Walls - a structure by a harbour    


Section Four: AN ANCIENT CIVILISATION

Chapter 17 -   The Megalithic Builders                           


Epilogue -       Monument to the LOST WORLD of ATLANTIS            


Appendices    Listing of Hypothesis proofs / Acknowledgments                                     


Dawn of the Lost Civilisation

Dawn of the Lost Civilisation

Contents

Introduction

1. The Ascent of Man

        Out of Africa

        Generic Ancestry

        Cro-Magnon

        Crossbreeding                                                                                                                 


2. Variation of the Species

        Neanderthals

        The Comparison

        Exodus

        New Migrants - New Land

        Simple way of Life

        Fundamental Flaw                                                                                                              

        Blood Types and DNA

              

3. Doggerland and the Ice Age                                                                  

        Doggerland                                                                                                                         

        Animal Finds                                                                                                                       

        Foliage                                                                                                                                  

        Landscape                                                                                                                           

        Climate                                                                                                                                 

        River Valleys                                                                                                                       


4. Atlantis                                                                                                     

        Ancient Tales                                                                                                                      

        Plan of Atlantis                                                                                                                    

        The Flood                                                                                                                             

        Hyperborea                                                                                                                         

        The Golden Age                                                                                                                 

        8000 year Old Map                                                                                                               


5. The Atlanteans

        Plato                                                                                                                                      

        Virtue                                                                                                                                    

        Things                                                                                                                                  

        The Hundreds                                                                                                                     

        Appearance                                                                                                                         

                      

6. Advanced Technology

        Tool Development                                                                                                              

        Pre-Atlantean Dawn                                                                                                           

        Weapons                                                                                                                              

        Meare Heath Bow                                                                                                               

        Harpoons, Spears and Throwers                                                                                      

        The Wheel                                                                                                                           

        Sunstone                                                                                                                              

        Kilns                                                                                                                                      

        Bow and Pump Drills                                                                                                          

        Mechanical Advantage of Poles & Levers


7. Lifestyles                                                                                                   

        Diet                                                                                                                                        

        Farmers shrank Mankind                                                                                                   

        Magnetised Water                                                                                                              

        Housing                                                                                                                                

        Long Houses                                                                                                                       

        Medical Procedures                                                                                                           

        Hospitals                                                                                                                             

        Dentistry                                                                                                                             

        Clothing                                                                                                                              


8. Trading                                                                                          

        European Ice sheet                                                                                                           

        Long Barrows                                                                                                                    

        Long Skulls                                                                                                                        

        Round Barrows                                                                                                                 

        Stone Circles                                                                                                                     

        Trading Towns                                                                                                                 

        Trading Materials

        Maths, Pythagoras and Measurement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          9. Language and Art                                                                                    

        Languages                                                                                                                            

        Oral Traditions                                                                                                                     

        Art                                                                                                                                         

        Symbolism                                                                                                                    


10. Ancient Mythology                                                                               

        Structuralist approach to Myth                                                                                     

        Geoffrey of Monmouth                                                                                                     

        Land of the Giants                                                                                                             

        Arthurian Legend                                                                                                              

        Flood Myths                                                                                                                          


11. Civilisation                                                                                             

        What is Civilisation?                                                                                                             

        Utopia, Eden and Shangri-la                                                                                              

        Stonehenge - Temple of the Dead                                                                                   


12. The Legacy                                                                                             

        Where did they go?                                                                                                           

        Greek and Egyptian Ancestry  

        Black Sea and Mesopotamia

        Central America and Inca

        India and Mongolia

        China and Japan


Appendixes  / Location Maps and Trade routes /                                                                       

Map of Doggerland Atlantis 

13 Ancient things that don't make sense in History

13 things


Contents

1.                  Ten thousand year old boats found on Britains Hillsides - 7,000 years before they          were invented.

 

2.                  Gigantic Prehistoric Canals - that are technically superior to even Victorian engineering.

 

3.                  Roman ports miles away from the coast – when sea levels are apparently rising.

 

4.                  Raised Beaches - that have never met the sea.

 

5.                  Giant skeletons - found by French archaeologists now dismissed by todays scientists.

 

6.                  Mythological Dragons - a non-existent animal that is shared by the world.

 

7.                  Sunken land of the North Sea - was the worlds oldest and greatest civilisation.

 

8.                  Troy was located in Turkey - although it took Jason ten years to get home to Greece.

 

9.                  Antler Picks that built ancient Monuments - yet there is no real evidence for this             myth.

 

10.                Recent Landscape Flooding & Storms - the secret our ancient ancestors knew about         Britain’s weather.

 

11.                Alexander the Great sailed into India - where no rivers exist today.

 

12.                Columbus was the first western man to reach America - yet bones and tools suggest      that Europeans came 10,000 years earlier.

 

13.                Quantum of Solstice – Pythagoras triangles show that Stonehenge holds mathematical s        ecrets before its time.

 

14.                Prologue

 

15.                Index and Acknowledgements


                                                                                                            


Langdon 'Mini' Series

These are 'bite sized' snippets from the main books I publish at a fraction of the cost of the whole book.

Megalithic Builders

The Megalithic Builders - Kindle Version


Stonehenge - TSE

Stonehenge (TSE) - Kindle Version

Post Glacial Flooding

Post Glacial Flooding - Kindle Edition

Atlantis - TSE

Atlantis (TSE) - Kindle Edition

Ten Thousand year old boats

Ten Thousand year old Boats - Kindle Edition

Wansdyke


Gigantic Prehistoric Canals - Kindle Edition


Raised Beaches

Raised Beaches - Kindle Edition

Roman Ports

Roman Ports  - Kindle Edition


Links



Robert John Langdon's Blog Site - www.the-stonehenge-enigma.info

WHO built Stonehenge?  -  www.the-stonehenge-enigma.co.uk

Prehistoric Britain  (Official  Web Site) - www.prehistoric-britain.co.uk

WHY was Stonehenge built? -   www.uk-archaeology.tv

Stonehenge - 'An inconvienient truth' - www.ancient-monuments.co.uk

Langdon's Prehistoric Map Series - www.archaeological-sites.co.uk

13 Ancient Things that don't make sense in History - www.13things.co.uk

HOW Stonehenge was built? - www.stonehengeinfo.uk

Britain's top 10 prehistoric sites - www.mysterious-britain.co.uk

Design Downloaded from free CSS templates | free website templates | Free Wallpapers HD.